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Archive for the category “History of Photojournalism”

The Roads To Wigan Pier

Julian Germain is the name of the photographer that took this photograph.


In the image there is a boy aged about 13/14 sat on some railway tracks looking very scruffy. He looks like he is wearing trousers too short for him suggesting that he could possibly be from a poor family and they maybe cant afford to buy him new clothes. Also the fact that he is sat on the railway suggests that he may not have anywhere like a park to play where he lives hence why he is sat on the railway track and the houses in the background suggest that he lives in a terrace house. The boy appears to be holding a bit of rope in his right hand that he most likely found and could be using this as a toy. The teenager isn’t smiling in the picture and is staring straight into the lens of the camera, possibly he is bored? You could look at this picture from another aspect and think that the boy is a outcast and doesn’t play in the park like everyone else or go to school and maybe that is why he is sat down on the railway on his own without anyone else around him.

I like the way the image has been set out as it uses the rule of thirds very well as in the bottom third it just has the railway track, the middle third predominantly contains the boy sat right in the centre of the frame and the top third is made up of the terrace houses and the sky. The image shows me how much things have changed for the good since this photograph was taken.

The camera is positioned at waist height so that the boy can make eye contact with the camera. The camera is about 2 meters way from the boy and this gives the feeling of distance between you and the boy and i feel it adds to the photograph and makes the subject seem more mysterious.

The image is portrait so not all the terrace houses are included in the image as this makes you concentrate more on the boy as if it was a landscape photograph the boy would be at risk of getting lost within the terrace houses.

It looks like the picture was taken on a fairly dull day as there isn’t much harsh lighting and shadows in the image, definitely no artificial lighting. It looks like the sun is casting down onto the boy from the top left of the image. The photo being taken on a dull day i think enhances the feel of the photograph as not only is the weather not good the boy isn’t smiling either adding the effect that where he is is miserable and no fun.

Two other images in this series have got similar layouts of the subject in the middle of the photograph not smiling and looking straight ahead into the camera lens with no harsh lighting and very bland surroundings.

This photograph made me think about the boys life and ask myself questions such as: Is he happy? What ambitions in life does he have? and i wondered if he would stay in that area for the rest of his life or if he managed to live somewhere different that isn’t as crowded as the terrace house and that doesn’t back on to industrial areas such as railway lines.



This is a article based on a trip to the Impressions gallery in bradford. While i was there i found many interesting things out about the exhibition “The Roads to Wigan’s Pier” I took images while i was at the gallery and made them relevant to the article i was producing, this saving time and having to go find images on the internet. The document contains information that i gathered from the trip and doesn’t contain anything from the internet and i feel this helps the article as i left out any irrelevant information.



Once Upon a Time

The saying Once Upon a Time is most commonly thought of to appear at the start of a story and probably most popularly children’s stories. Although this is to do with books and literature stories can be told in many various ways such as dance, film, song and photography. Most of the story books contain plots and characters who are revealed throughout the book. Story telling is very popular in 3rd world countries where they do not have the luxury of having books and paper where they can write things down. This then leads to generations passing on stories to each other sometimes in extremely detailed and usually gets passed through many generations. Although as they cannot write down what the story is they have to rely on their memory and a chinese whispers effect can happen where objects in the story change and certain parts can be exaggerated e.g Instead of the village experiencing 5 days of solid rain it could jump up to 50 days of solid rain.

I feel that the saying “a image can speak a thousand words” is very true as to describe what is going on in the image can take lots of long explaining and through translation some of things may be lost whereas anyone can see the image and no matter what language they speak and where they are from they are most likely to understand what is going on.

Images similar to this that are very shocking are used in many adverts on television and posters to bring awareness of famine going on across the world and to try and encourage you to donate money. Although this is originally a brilliant marketing technique people have almost become accustom to seeing disturbing images such as this and the effect isn’t anywhere as near as it was when the campaigns using images like this started.

African Famine

This photo was taken by Kevin Carter who was a South African photographer who won many awards. The photo is of a child from Sudan in 1994 who was involved with the horrible famine. The child is crawling towards a United Nations camp. In the background you can see a vulture that appears to be waiting for the child to die. The fate of this child was never known as Kevin Carter left the scene after taking the photograph, he then committed suicide months later. It is not known if this picture was the reason for it or not but it couldn’t of been a very happy place to be in seeing young children on the brink of death.

To the viewer it is a instantly shocking picture as not many places in the world will you see a eagle this close to such a young child. On close examination you can see that the child’s ribs are very visible and that the limbs on the child are extremely thin and boney. The ratio of the child’s head to the rest of its body suggests that along with the other signs that the child is  extremely malnourished. The child looks like he/she has collapse in exhaustion due to a combination of the severe heat and the lack of nutrition and food received. The ground around all looks very brown and dead suggesting that the climate they live in is a very harsh, hot and dry. In the background you can see the eagle looking straight forward at the child as if it is waiting to eat a zebra corpse that a pack of lions have killed. At this point the child still seems alive but if the eagle was to attack i don’t think the child would have the energy or strength to defend itself due to having no energy to even walk.

Overall i feel this photograph tells the story of how the 3rd world countries are still struggling to get necessities such as food and water that we take for granted. If people didn’t see this photo and you tried to explain to them stories of how bad the situation is in the 3rd world countries no matter what you said to them i don’t think that it would have such a emotional reaction to if you showed them the photograph that Kevin Carter took.


This is a photograph of Kevin Carter. He got a lot of criticism for taking this photograph as he didn’t help the child but still had time to adjust the lens and frame the photograph how he wanted it to look. Although the photograph did have lots of negative opinions towards it it still managed to win the  Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography.


This topic of once upon a time was very interesting as i have always thought that images are very powerful and explain more than a thousand words. When i found the picture i used in my article i didn’t find it a very pleasant picture to look at but it fitted the topic perfectly, as the image told a story. the story of famine. On researching this image i became aware of the controversy this caused and the effect it had on the photography. Learning about all this was very interesting and i feel it has given me a real insight into the life of a photojournalist.


Barack 1

Barack 2

Barack 3

These images are the most known and recognisable for Barack Obamas campaign to become the United States of America President. These images are very clever as the image of Barack is of him looking like he is looking into the distance. This could be viewed as he is looking into the future and invisaging what he can do to help and change the USA if he was given the oppertunity. The short and mostly one word captions below show some of his  aims and his views, all are positive and even motivational such as “yes we can” although you dont know what he is actually thinking this puts the message across that he is very determined and has a positive view. These pictures only incorperate 3 colours; Red While and Blue. This is suitable as these colours are also the colours of the flag of the United States of America, the country he wants to change. The way all of the campaign posters have kept to the same colour scheme and  layout is very clever as you soon learn to associate the colours and layoout of this poster to Barack Obama and as you become more familiar with this all you will need to do is glance at the images and you will realise what it is. This proved to be a very good tool for Barack Obama to gain votes as it was a very simple, clever but most importantly effective way of gaining votes.




The reason i chose to do my propaganda report on Barack Obama is because it was at the time he was fighting to stay the American president agains Mitt Romney. The images he used i his campaign i feel were very clever and effective and possibly due to this he won the election. The topic interested me as i think it showed how images can be kept simple but still have a very strong effect on people.

Social Comment

Shooting in Tottenham Hale

Mark Duggan was a north London gangster and founding member of a notorious gang linked to the Broadwater Farm estate. On the 8th of August 2011 he was shot by police in the stomach while they tried to intercept the car he was traveling in resulting in his death. This then sparked public outraged from people who knew Mark but also people who were from the same social background, class and age. This outrage then went out onto the streets of North London and a mass riot commenced injuring police officers, looting shops and setting ablaze anything they could get their hands on, from shops to police cars. This image i feel shows the pure lack of respect and fear that these rioters have towards the police as you can see in the image there are 3 police officers in full protective gear including batons prepared to defend themselves against the rioters. Where as the guy that they are facing is stood square on with them and it looks like his is raising his arms almost beckoning the police to see what they can do. Although you cannot see his eyes clearly, it does look like he is staring straight into the eyes of the middle policeman showing no fear and trying to intimidate the police. When the riots eventually ended 3 days later the damage was clear, millions of pounds worth of products and vandalism were committed on shops, endless police cars and riot vans were damaged and burnt out and many people, mainly police officers got injured and some even got submitted to hospital.


This image illustrates the problem that the police are having with young people consuming alcohol and smoking cigarettes. This picture is most likely set up because most young people who are doing this try to do it in secret and get away with it. They do not realize the harm they are causing to their young bodies by consuming these as the age limit is their for a reason. Also it is not just the fact the young people are drinking its how they are getting hold of the alcohol, normally through irresponsible friends/relatives who probably themselves do not understand the long term effects that the consumption of alcohol and cigarettes have on underage consumers. The problem is not just the effects that these substances have on the young people it is also the vulnerable situation they could get themselves into as the people who are irresponsible enough to get them alcohol may also be people who are not responsible to look after them if they do get drunk or cant handle the amount of alcohol they have consumed. If the youngsters think they can get away with breaking the law doing this they may also think they can then go on and break other laws that may have more serious consequences.

As soon as i found out about that this page was to be about social comment i had a idea straight away that i wanted to use in the article. It was about the london riots and the image i had already seen with the rioter and three police officers trying to stand their ground. This image struck me when i saw it in the news when the riot was taking place so i found very interesting to research it then to put the research into my article to enable others to understand the image and what social comment it is making.

Timeline of Photography

  • ancient times: Camera obscurers used to form images on walls in darkened rooms; image formation via a pinhole
  • 16th century: Brightness and clarity of camera obscurers improved by enlarging the hole inserting a telescope lens
  • 17th century: Camera obscurers in frequent use by artists and made portable in the form of sedan chairs
  • 1727: Professor J. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight. Accidental creation of the first photo-sensitive compound.
  • 1800: Thomas Wedgwood made “sun pictures” by placing opaque objects on leather treated with silver nitrate which resulted in images deteriorating rapidly under strong light.
  • 1816: Nicéphore Niépce combines the camera obscurer with photosensitive paper
  • 1826: Niépce creates a permanent image
  • 1834: Henry Fox Talbot creates permanent (negative) images using paper soaked in silver chloride and fixed with a salt solution. He then created positive images by contact printing negatives onto another sheet of paper.
  • 1837: Louis Daguerre creates images on silver-plated copper, coated with silver iodide and “developed” with warmed mercury. He then went on to be awarded a state pension by the French government in exchange for publication of methods and the rights by other French citizens to use the Daguerreotype process.
  • 1841: Talbot patents his process under the name “calotype”.
  • 1851: Frederick Scott Archer, improves photographic resolution by spreading a mixture of collodion (nitrated cotton dissolved in ether and alcohol) and chemicals on sheets of glass. Wet plate collodion photography was much cheaper than daguerreotypes, the negative/positive process permitted unlimited reproductions, and the process was published but not patented.
  • 1853: Nadar (Felix Toumachon) opens his portrait studio in Paris
  • 1854: Adolphe Disderi develops carte-de-visite photography in Paris, leading to worldwide boom in portrait studios for the next decade
  • 1855: Beginning of stereoscopic era
  • 1855-57: Direct positive images on glass (ambrotypes) and metal (tintypes or ferrotypes) popular in the US.
  • 1861: Scottish physicist James Clerk-Maxwell demonstrates a color photography system involving three black and white photographs, each taken through a red, green, or blue filter. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. This is the “color separation” method.
  • 1861-65: Mathew Brady and staff cover the American Civil War, exposing 7000 negatives
  • 1868: Ducas de Hauron publishes a book proposing a variety of methods for color photography.
  • 1870: Center of period in which the US Congress sent photographers out to the West. The most famous images were taken by William Jackson and Tim O’Sullivan.
  • 1871: Richard Leach Maddox, an English doctor, proposes the use of an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate, the “dry plate” process.
  • 1877:  Eadweard Muybridge, born in England as Edward Muggridge, settles “do a horse’s four hooves ever leave the ground at once” bet among rich San Franciscans by time-sequenced photography of Leland Stanford’s horse.
  • 1878: Dry plates being manufactured commercially.
  • 1880: First half-tone photograph appears in a daily newspaper, the New York Graphic.
  • 1888: First Kodak camera, containing a 20-foot roll of paper, enough for 100 2.5-inch diameter circular pictures.
  • 1889: Improved Kodak camera with roll of film instead of paper
  • 1890: Jacob Riis publishes How the Other Half Lives, images of tenement life in New york City
  • 1900: Kodak Brownie box roll-film camera introduced.
  • 1902:  Alfred Stieglitz organizes “Photo Secessionist” show in New York City
  • 1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography. J.P. Morgan finances Edward Curtis to document the traditional culture of the North American Indian.
  • 1907: First commercial color film, the Autochrome plates, manufactured by Lumiere brothers in France
  • 1909: Lewis Hine hired by US National Child Labor Committee to photograph children working mills.
  • 1914: Oscar Barnack, employed by German microscope manufacturer Leitz, develops camera using the modern 24x36mm frame and sprocketed 35mm movie film.
  • 1917: Nippon Kogaku K.K., which will eventually become Nikon, established in Tokyo.
  • 1921: Man Rey begins making photograms (“rayographs”) by placing objects on photographic paper and exposing the shadow cast by a distant light bulb; Eugegrave;ne Atget, aged 64, assigned to photograph the brothels of Paris
  • 1924: Leitz markets a derivative of Barnack’s camera commercially as the “Leica”, the first high quality 35mm camera.
  • 1925: Andre Kertesz moves from his native Hungary to Paris, where he begins an 11-year project photographing street life
  • 1928: Albert Renger-Patzsch publishes The World is Beautiful, close-ups emphasizing the form of natural and man-made objects; Rollei introduces the Rolleiflex twin-lens reflex producing a 6×6 cm image on rollfilm.; Karl Blossfeldt publishes Art Forms In Nature
  • 1931: Development of strobe photography by Harold (“Doc”) Edgerton at MIT
  • 1932: Inception of Technicolor for movies, where three black and white negatives were made in the same camera under different filters; Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, Willard Van Dyke, Edward Weston, et al, form Group f/64 dedicated to “straight photographic thought and production”.; Henri Cartier-Bresson buys a Leica and begins a 60-year career photographing people; On March 14, George Eastman, aged 77, writes suicide note–“My work is done. Why wait?”–and shoots himself.
  • 1933: Brassi publishes Paris de nuit
  • 1934: Fuji Photo Film founded. By 1938, Fuji is making cameras and lenses in addition to film.
  • 1935: Farm Security Administration hires Roy Stryker to run a historical section. Stryker would hire Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Arthur Rothstein, et al. to photograph rural hardships over the next six years.  Roman Vishniac begins his project of the soon-to-be-killed-by-their-neighbors Jews of Central and Eastern Europe.
  • 1936: Development of Kodachrome, the first color multi-layered color film; development of Exakta, pioneering 35mm single-lens reflex (SLR) camera
  • World War II:
    • Development of multi-layer color negative films
    • Margaret Bourke-White, Robert Capa, Carl Mydans, and W. Eugene Smith cover the war for LIFE magazine
  • 1947:  Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Capa, and David Seymour start the photographer-owned Magnum picture agency
  • 1948: Hasselblad in Sweden offers its first medium-format SLR for commercial sale; Pentax in Japan introduces the automatic diaphragm; Polaroid sells instant black and white film
  • 1949: East German Zeiss develops the Contax S, first SLR with an unreversed image in a pentaprism viewfinder
  • 1955: Edward Steichen curates Family of Man exhibit at New York’s Museum of Modern Art
  • 1959: Nikon F introduced.
  • 1960: Garry Winograng begins photographing women on the streets of New York City.
  • 1963: First color instant film developed by Polaroid; Instamatic released by Kodak; first purpose-built underwater introduced, the Nikonos
  • 1970: William Wegman begins photographing his Weimaraner, Man Ray.
  • 1972: 110-format cameras introduced by Kodak with a 13x17mm frame
  • 1973: C-41 color negative process introduced, replacing C-22
  • 1975: Nicholas Nixton takes his first annual photograph of his wife and her sisters: “The Brown Sisters”; Steve Sasson at Kodak builds the first working CCD-based digital still camera
  • 1976: First solo show of color photographs at the Museum of Modern Art, Williams Egglestons Guide
  • 1977: Cindy Sherman begins work on Untitled Film Stills, completed in 1980; Jan Groover begins exploring kitchen utensils
  • 1978: Hiroshi Sugimoto begins work on seascapes.
  • 1980: Elsa Dorfman begins making portraits with the 20×24″ Polaroid.
  • 1982: Sony demonstrates Mavica “still video” camera
  • 1983: Kodak introduces disk camera, using an 8x11mm frame (the same as in the Minox spy camera)
  • 1985: Minolta markets the world’s first autofocus SLR system (called “Maxxum” in the US); In the American West by Richard Avedon
  • 1988:Sally Mann begins publishing nude photos of her children
  • 1987: The popular Canon EOS system introduced, with new all-electronic lens mount
  • 1990: Adobe Photoshop released.
  • 1991: Kodak DCS-100, first digital SLR, a modified Nikon F3
  • 1992: Kodak introduces PhotoCD
  • 1993: Founding of (this Web site), an early Internet online community; Sebastiao Salgado publishes Workers; Mary Ellen Mark publishes book documenting life in an Indian circus.
  • 1995: Material World, by Peter Menzel published.
  • 1997: Rob Silvers publishes Photomosaics
  • 1999: Nikon D1 SLR, 2.74 megapixel for $6000, first ground-up DSLR design by a leading manufacturer.
  • 2000: Camera phone introduced in Japan by Sharp/J-Phone
  • 2001: Polaroid goes bankrupt
  • 2003: Four-Thirds standard for compact digital SLRs introduced with the Olympus E-1; Canon Digital Rebel introduced for less than $1000
  • 2004: Kodak ceases production of film cameras
  • 2005: Canon EOS 5D, first consumer-priced full-frame digital SLR, with a 24x36mm CMOS sensor for $3000;

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This article i found very interesting to do as i learnt a lot about different kinds of cameras, when they were invented and also the first companies to do so. We learnt some of the information i have out in the magazine during the lecture as we watched a documentary that david Hockney presented on the early stages of photography. This was probably one of the most interesting pages i made due to the way i set it out, it took a lot longer to organise than some of the other pages but overall i feel it looks very good and is also very simple to read and understand.




This page shows a computer drawing of the Wright brothers’ 1902 aircraft. This was the third unpowered aircraft built by the brothers. The aircraft was flown repeatedly at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, during 1902 as a piloted glider and as a kite. The Wright brothers used this aircraft to answer some of the problems encountered with the 1901 aircraft. They also used this aircraft to develop their piloting skills because this was the first aircraft in the world that had active controls for all three axis; roll, pitch and yaw.

The 1902 aircraft has two wings and an elevator/stabilizer mounted in the front like the 1901 aircraft. As with previous aircraft, the pilot lies on the bottom wing and controls the roll of the aircraft by warping the wing shape. On the 1902 aircraft, and on all later flyers, the warping was controlled by a hip cradle instead of the pedals on the 1900 and 1901 aircraft.

British People in Hand Pulling Rickshaws - Agra 1902


These people look very wealthy and most probably were due to being able to travel to india in 1902 for pleasure, also the money that they had would have a gone a lot further in India than in England, you would be able to have everything you had in england and more with the added good weather of India. I think this shows the contrast between the two countries over a hundred years ago. We were a lot more developed and structured as a country where as india still had extremely poor areas where people would struggle to survive, and the men are pulling the carts for a living in the searing heat of the day. They would not only need to support themselves they may have a whole family back home relying on them to put food on the table, this would of been a bit of a shock to the early english tourists as not many people before had experienced and explored fields as far as india.

This still happens today where people move abroad to make their money go further in foreign countries while still being able to have many luxuries. A example of this is people retiring and then moving to spain where they can have everything they do in england for a lot cheaper but also they get the added warm weather that is hardly existent in the UK


This image just shows how far the English people in the photograph would of had to travel in 1902 with no modern day transport. It would of took months to do where as now it takes less than a day to make this   journey just over 100 years later



This task i found one of the hardest to get my teeth into as i struggled to find a image that showed a journey. Eventually i found the one that features in my article. Once i found this image the article got easier to do as i soon got a grasp on what i wanted to write about the image and to explain how the image shows a journey. This also made me realise the length of time it would of taken the English people in the photograph to travel to there destination without the modern day transport we take for granted today.

Frozen Moment

Hours after the 9/11 attacks, three firefighters had spontaneously used a U.S. flag taken off a yacht and raised it in the wreckage of the World Trade Center. A newspaper photographer Thomas Franklin captured the scene, creating one of the most memorable flag raising scenes since Iwo Jima. Franklin was working for The Bergen Record newspaper of Passaic, New Jersey. When the first hit hit the Twin Towers, his editor sent him to cover the event, but it was only in that evening that he captured this iconic image.

Franklin shot the photograph shortly after 5 p.m, 8 hours after the attack. with a telephoto lens. At this time, he was standing under a pedestrian walkway across the West Side Highway that connected the center to the World Financial Center, located at the northwest corner of the World Trade Center site. Franklin said the firefighters were about 150 yards (137 m) away from him and the debris was 100 yards (91 m) beyond that. They were about 20 feet (6 m) off the ground. Franklin had hitched a ride on a tug boat across the Hudson River, arriving around noon after the towers had collapsed. He was with photographer James Nachtwey when he saw the firefighters.

Three firemen (left to right, George Johnson of Ladder 157, Dan McWilliams of Ladder 157, and Billy Eisengrein of Rescue 2)  unaware they were being caught on film  were raising an American flag amid the ruins. Franklin, who had just 30 digital frames left in his camera, captured the moment which instantly came to symbolize American resilience in the face of the murders of 2,819 innocent people.

The photograph has appeared on the covers of many publications, including Newsweek, USA Today, Parade Sunday Magazine, and People magazine. It was a Pulitzer Prize finalist and the winner of countless awards, and used for a special U.S. Postal Service stamp released in March 2002 to raise funds for families of emergency workers killed or permanently disabled as a result of the 9/11 attacks. Franklin has been a guest on radio and television shows many times, including the Today show (three times), Good Morning America, CNN, Fox Cable Network, and Oprah proving the power and meaning this image has had on America and the rest of the world.

A year after the attacks, Franklin reunited with three firefighters for a new shot of the men for his newspaper and Newsweek magazine, this time using the Statue of Liberty as the background. The flag, the day’s most famous artifact, has been missing for five years, so they had to do without.


This task was to choose one image and talk about how the photographer has captured what is going on in his surroundings. I feel the image i chose was backed up by another strong image in history and this i think added to the my article. All the images almost tell a story and this is what the photographers where trying to capture. The task overall was very interesting as i learned a lot about the history behind the photographs due to my research.


Surrealism is shaped from subconscious perceptions on reality thought up in dreams then expressed through art and photography. Lots of surrealism involves juxtapositions, this is where objects are placed together that probably naturally would not be seen together, such as clouds inside someone’s house.

Surrealism is used both in photography in paintings where they images has been thought of and people experience a “suspension of disbelief” when viewing the image created. This is where the viewer believes that the image is possible and it is of a real life situation and reality is left to one side for a short period. Surrealism creates a “suspension of disbelief” for most people as they are unaware of how the image was put together so therefore feel the image is real life. The viewer may be looking at an image where there is an elephant inside a classroom and believe this is real for a short period, without thinking logically such as, how would the elephant of got into the classroom, would there be a door big enough to fit it through etc.

Surrealism began in the early 1920’s developing out of the Dada movement in World War 1 where the centre of the movement was around Paris but the movement soon spread internationally into all types of industries from philosophy to visual arts. Surrealism was then taken up by both early photographers and artist who used their dreams to influence their work such as Salvador Dali.

Dali is well known and probably one of the most related artists towards surrealism. His famous painting “The Persistence of Memory” Melting pocket watches on a seaside is one of the most well-known surrealist artworks around today. This image was painted from what he remembered from a recent dream, it contains fairly bold colours such as the yellow on the cliffs and the blue in the sky. The sand on the beach is mainly dark brown/black and there isn’t much detail put into the sand. The image looks very dreamlike due to the colours used and the content in the painting. It is hard to tell where the light is coming from in this image due to there being a lack of obvious shadows, I think this also adds to the dreamlike look as in real life you would fairly easily be able to see where the sun was coming from but in this painting it is a lot less obvious.   One of Jerry’s images consists of a stately looking room with a Grande fireplace and a small table in the bottom left hand side of the picture that has a map on. The way the camera has been angled looks like he has used a 35mm lens but been right at the back left of the room crouching down in the corner and angling the camera up as it allows both the floor of the room and the celling to be in the same shot. The original celling has been taken out and replaced with a cloudy moody looking sky with the sun just shining through one of the clouds. The way the lighting has been set up in the room it actually looks like the sun is shining down onto the desk as the shadow on the floor looks like it has been cast by the desk blocking the sunlight. The fire place that is on the right hand side of the picture also has a lightened area on it where the ‘sun’ is shining on it. This picture has been very well planned by Jerry as he has strategically set up the lighting in this room to make it look as realistic as possible in the final print. It looks like this print is only made of two negatives; one being the room itself and the other being the celling (sky). Jerry has been very precise and exact in making sure the lines where the walls hit the sky are perfectly straight and not distorted. The contrast in this image is very good and looks like he has used a high filter in the darkroom such as a filter 5 as it has both white whites and black blacks but you can still make out every bit of detail in the room and the sky, for example the shadow that the desk is casting on the rug you can still see the pattern of the rug in the shadow.  Looking at both of these images I think it is clear that the Jerry Uelsmann image looks a lot more realistic than Dali’s painting. I think this is because the colors used in Dali’s painting are not very realistic whereas the shade of the image Jerry has produced is a lot truer to real life and I feel this gives off a much better surrealist look and I fee; the “suspense of disbelief” is a lot longer than that of Dali’s as the picture of the study is not out of the ordinary and neither is the picture of the sky it is just that they are put in the same image and juxtaposed that ads to the surrealist look/effect.

Hannah Hoch was a German woman born in 1889 who was known for her pioneering cut and stick art form the later went on to be known as photo montaging.  Instead of using images that had been taken from the same view point and perspective she chose images to montage together that had different contrasting viewpoints and when put together in a montage gave off a very surreal effect. Some of her images that she created where used to make a strong statement on racial discrimination. The images she selects to montage are not only mainly from different viewpoints she also contrasts black and white images with color prints, by doing this she is obviously not trying to make the pictures look realistic and truthful they are just meant to have an effect on the viewer hopefully getting her point across.

Chema Madoz is a Spanish surrealist photographer who uses humor in his surrealist images. He is mainly known for his black and white surrealist images where he creates the surreal scene then takes the picture of the scene instead of some other photographers who do their work on Photoshop or in the dark room creating a surrealist image. In many of his photographs he uses juxtaposing subjects in the same frame that you wouldn’t ordinarily find together, for example in one of my favorite images of his he uses the slates in a drain cover on a path as a draining rack for plates as if they were in the kitchen drying off. The image is printed in a square format so is most likely taken on a Hasselblad unless it has been cropped after the image has been taken. The camera has been positioned at head height and is looking down on to the plates in the slats of the drain cover and I think the reason for this is because if the camera was positioned lower down you would not be able to see the slats and the drain cover and maybe confused to what the plates are resting on making it confusing and ruining the blunt surrealistic feel to the image but also if the image was taken directly above the plates looking straight down it would ruin all the depth in the image making it less effective.

Surrealism was first used in advertising due to laws changing in the advertisements of cigarettes around the 1970’s that banned celebrities and people who the public looked up to such as doctors to be used in the advertisement of tobacco products so the advertising departments had to dramatically change their advertising strategies and this is where surrealism started to be used in advertising. Benson and Hedges were on of the first companies to use surrealism in one of their ads. This ad was an image of a corner of a house with a mouse hole in the wall, instead of their being a mouse next to the hole it was just a packet of B&H cigarettes. This advertisement strategy of surrealism carried through until the 1980’s where all that was needed in the Benson and Hedges advert was a small amount of gold showing and the viewers would automatically relate this to the brand. People felt proud of spotting that the image was a B&H advert and looked forward to the next poster coming out so this surrealistic advertisement strategy really worked for B&H. Silk cut also used this technique and in one of their images they just has a picture of a pair of scissors cutting some silk and the viewers related this image as  a Silk Cut advertisement.

Chema Madoz is a Spanish surrealist humor photographer, and is most well-known for his black and white surrealist photographs. This image of the plates rested in a drain cover like they would be beside a kitchen sink in a drying rack has been taken from head height looking down on them. There doesn’t seem to be any harsh light coming in from any direction so it was most likely taken on a cloudy overcast day as no obvious shadows are present either. He hasn’t filled up all the slots in the drain cover and has only used the last 4 furthest away from the camera and I think this adds to the effect as it makes it clear and obvious what the plates are resting in. Surrealism work features the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions often leading to humorous photography.

This picture if of a lipstick that is used by women to make their selves look better and at the end of the lipstick there is a false fingernail that women also use to enhance their look. The way the 2 subjects has been combined into one I think is really clever and it is acting as if the lipstick is the finger and the false nail is actually growing out of the lipstick giving it a very surrealistic look. There is light coming from both the right and left hand side of the image but the light on the right hand side of the image is stronger and you can tell this by the slight shadow casted by the lipstick on the left hand side of the image.  The camera has been placed level with the middle section of the lipstick and then positioned so the lipstick has a equal width of background each side.

This picture is of a used match that has been burnt 1/3rd of the way down but at a glance it still looks like it is on fire due to the grain of the piece of wood the match is resting on. The camera has been positioned directly above the match and piece of wood to give it the effect that it is still alight, because of the angle the image was taken it almost looks like the match has been glued onto an upright wall/fence. As the image was taken on a Hasselblad and using black and white film it enhances the surrealist effect as it makes it harder to see that the “flame” isn’t real.


I find surrealism a very interesting subject and i also feel a i know a fair bit about it due to picking it as one of my four modules while studying Photography at A level. This past experience with surrealism gave me a good idea of the images i already liked and also key points to talk about. Overall i found this a very interesting topic to create a article on for the magazine.

Myth: Loch NessMonster

“We’ll give them their monster,” Duke told his son. Ian Wetherell and his father took the completed contraption and a camera to the Loch and photographed it on a quiet bay, then sank the evidence in the mud at the edge of the lake. The undeveloped film was then passed to Chambers and on to Colonel Wilson, who had them developed. He then sold them photo to the Daily Mail. The conspirators were quite unprepared for the publicity the photo generated and apparently decided not to admit the hoax. The story stayed unknown for over sixty years.

Tim Dinsdale borrowed a movie camera from believer turned sceptic Maurice Burton. Close to the end of his first visit to the loch in 1960, Tim saw a dark hump in the water and viewed it through binoculars. It appeared to have a mahogany coloured patch on the side and then started to move across the loch. Tim filmed the object in long bursts, stopping to rewind the clockwork mechanism as necessary, then the object appeared to submerge and move parallel to the far shore throwing up a huge wake.
When the film was examined the hump appeared dark and some have claimed that a paddle action can be seen in the sequence where the object moved parallel to the shore.
The film was shown on the Panorama programme in the early sixties and provided the final impetus for the formation of the Loch Ness Phenomenon Investigation Bureau set up by Richard Fitter, (Sir) Peter Scott, Constance Whyte and David James M.P.
In 1966 the film was examined by the Royal Air Force’s Joint Air Reconnaissance Intelligence Centre who made estimates of the size of the object and also stated that it was “probably animate”.George Edwards spends his life on the loch taking tourists out on his boat Nessie Hunter IV. But this image is the one that’s convinced him that there really is a monster out there. It shows a mysterious dark hump moving in the water towards Urquhart Castle.
“I was just about to return to Temple Pier (in Drumnadrochit) and I went to the back of the boat which was facing the pier and that’s when I saw it,” said the 60-year-old.
After watching the object for five to ten minutes, Mr Edwards said it slowly sank below the surface and never resurfaced.
“I’m convinced I was seeing Nessie as I believe in these creatures. Far too many people have been seeing them for far too long,” he said.
“The first recorded sighting was in 565AD and there have been thousands of eye witness reports since then.

“All these people can’t be telling lies. And the fact the reports stretch over so many years mean there can’t just be one of them. I’m convinced there are several monsters.”
Steve Feltham, who has dedicated the past 21 years to hunting for Nessie was unequivocal.
“It is the best photograph I think I have ever seen,” he said.
From his base on Dores beach he has studied many Nessie sighting photographs.
“I think the images are fantastic – that’s the animal I have been looking for all this time,” he said yesterday.
“I would say it doesn’t prove what Nessie is, but it does prove what Nessie isn’t, a sturgeon which is a fish that has been put forward as one of the main explanations as to what Nessie could be but this hasn’t got a serrated spine like the sturgeon.”
Mr Edwards took the photo at 9am on 2nd November last year on a compact Samsung digital camera that he always keeps on the boat.
Before releasing it publicly he sent it to the USA for analysis, though he can’t reveal further details.
“I did not want to mention my sighting until I was sure that I had not photographed a log or something inanimate in the water,” he said.
“I have friends in the USA who have friends in the military. They had my photo analyzed it and they have no doubt that I photographed an animate object in the water. I was really excited as I am sure that some strange creatures are lurking in the depths of Loch Ness.”

This video shows drawings and pictures of the loch ness monster collected over many years to try and prove that the monster is real. Although some of these images are obviously edited in Photoshop and put together to show what the monster is suppose to look like there are other images in this video that are old and taken on analogue cameras. Although it is still possible to edit images in the darkroom from the film of a analogue camera it is a lot harder to do than digitally and the age of the images and the way the look suggest they haven’t been enhanced in the darkroom to try and make people believe the creature exist it just looks like the creature was actually captured on camera in more than one of the images showed in this video.,r:4,s:0,i:83The Surgeon’s photo, which has become iconic for Nessies. It was first published in the Daily Mail on 21 April 1934

The loch ness monster is said to be a similar creature to a long line of plesiosaurs. The sightings has often been described as a mix of hoaxes and wishful thinking but despite this it still remains one of the most famous examples of Cryptozoology.


The term “monster” was reportedly applied for the first time to the creature on 2 May 1933 by Alex Campbell, the water bailiff for Loch Ness and a part-time journalist, in a report in the Inverness Courier. On 4 August 1933, the Courier published as a full news item the assertion of a London man, George Spicer, that a few weeks earlier while motoring around the Loch, he and his wife had seen “the nearest approach to a dragon or pre-historic animal that I have ever seen in my life”, trundling across the road toward the Loch carrying “an animal” in its mouth. Other letters began appearing in the Courier, often anonymously, with claims of land or water sightings, either on the writer’s part or on the parts of family, acquaintances or stories they remembered being told. These stories soon reached the national (and later the international) press, which described a “monster fish”, “sea serpent”, or “dragon”, eventually settling on “Loch Ness Monster”. On 6 December 1933 the first purported photograph of the monster, taken by Hugh Gray, was published in the Daily Express, and shortly after the creature received official notice when the Secretary of State for Scotland ordered the police to prevent any attacks on it. In 1934, interest was further sparked by what is known as The Surgeon’s Photograph. In the same year R. T. Gould published a book, the first of many that describe the author’s personal investigation and collected record of additional reports pre-dating 1933. Other authors have claimed that sightings of the monster go as far back as the 6th century.


This was my first attempt at creating a article on Illustrator. Once i got the basics of how to create a text box and to move subject fields around i soon got into editing the background and making the article look good. As it was my first research task i chose it on something familiar and something i had heard of before. This i feel helped me as it saved time on research that could then be spent on making the article look aesthetically pleasing and getting to grips with the new software.

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